Authors: Jakub Rafl, Filip Kulhanek, Petr Kudrna, Vaclav Ort, Karel Roubik


Rafl, J., Kulhanek, F., Kudrna, P., Ort, V. and Roubik, K., 2018. Response time of indirectly accessed gas exchange depends on measurement method. Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik, 63(6), pp.647-655.

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Noninvasive techniques are routinely used for assessment of tissue effects of lung ventilation. However, comprehensive studies of the response time of the methods are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the response time of noninvasive methods for monitoring of gas exchange to sudden changes in the composition of the inspired gas. A prospective experimental study with 16 healthy volunteers was conducted. A ventilation circuit was designed that enabled a fast change in the composition of the inspiratory gas mixture while allowing spontaneous breathing. The volunteers inhaled a hypoxic mixture, then a hypercapnic mixture, a hyperoxic mixture and finally a 0.3% CO mixture. The parameters with the fastest response to the sudden change of O2 in inhaled gas were peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) and regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2). Transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (tcpO2) had almost the same time of reaction, but its time of relaxation was 2–3 times longer. End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) response time to change of CO2 concentration in inhaled gas was less than half in comparison with transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (tcpCO2). All the examined parameters and devices reacted adequately to changes in gas concentration in the inspiratory gas mixture.


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