Authors: Karel Roubik, Jakub Rafl, Marc van Heerde and Dick G. Markhorst


Roubík K, Ráfl J, van Heerde M, Markhorst DG. Design and Control of a Demand Flow System Assuring Spontaneous Breathing of a Patient Connected to an HFO Ventilator. IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering 2011; 58(11); 3225-3233

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Design and Control of a Demand Flow System Assuring Spontaneous Breathing of a Patient Connected to an HFO Ventilator

Published in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering


Lung protective ventilation is intended to minimize the risk of ventilator induced lung injury and currently aimed at preservation of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a lung protective ventilation strategy. Commonly used high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilators, SensorMedics 3100, were not designed to tolerate spontaneous breathing. Respiratory efforts in large pediatric and adult patients impose a high workload to the patient and may cause pressure swings that impede ventilator function. A Demand Flow System (DFS) was designed to facilitate spontaneous breathing during HFOV. Using a linear quadratic Gaussian state feedback controller, the DFS alters the inflow of gas into the ventilator circuit, so that it instantaneously compensates for the changes in mean airway pressure (MAP) in the ventilator circuit caused by spontaneous breathing. The undesired swings in MAP are thus eliminated. The DFS significantly reduces the imposed work of breathing and improves ventilator function. In a bench test the performance of the DFS was evaluated using a simulator ASL 5000.With the gas inflow controlled, MAP was returned to its preset value within 115 ms after the beginning of inspiration. The DFS might help to spread the use of HFOV in clinical practice.


Demand Flow System, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control, mechanical ventilation.


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